Проблемные вопросы развития мировой энергетики

Problematic issues of the development of world energy

Yu.A. PODDUBNY
Moscow, 101000,
Russian Federation

В современной мировой энергетике все активнее реализуется тенденция на повсеместное использование альтернативных источников энергии, таких как ветер, солнечная энергия, биотопливо, биогаз или водород. Однако вопросы относительно их энергоэффективности сохраняются. К изучению этих вопросов в мире привлекаются не только прямые экономические исследования, но и энерготехнологические, основанные на сопоставлении объемов получаемой полезной для использования новой энергии с необходимыми затратами на ее получение, также оцениваемыми в энергетическом эквиваленте.

В статье приведен краткий обзорный анализ таких исследований и сделан вывод, что интенсивный путь внедрения в энергетику альтернативных источников энергии может дать отрицательный результат для экономики. Кроме того, объективно, существует предел доли возобновляемых источников энергии в энергобалансе в 30–50 %.

In the modern world energy industry, the trend towards the widespread use of alternative energy sources, such as wind, solar energy, biofuels, biogas or hydrogen, is increasingly being implemented. However, questions about their energy efficiency remain. The study of these issues in the world involves not only direct economic research, but also energy technology, based on a comparison of the amount of new energy received useful for use with the necessary costs for its production, also estimated in energy equivalent.
The article made a brief overview analysis of such studies and concluded that an intensive way of introducing alternative energy sources into the energy sector can give a negative result for the economy. In addition, objectively, there is a limit to the share of renewable energy sources in the energy balance of 30-50%.

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Литература

1. EROI of Global Energy Resources: Status, Trends and Social Implications. Jessica Gail Lambert, Charles A S Hall, Stephen Balogh. October 2013. DOI: 10.13140/2.1.2419.8724. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/269277869_EROI_of_Global_Energy_Resources_Status_Trends_and_Social_Implications.
2. Energy intensities, EROIs, and energy payback times of electricity generating power plants. D. Weißbach, G. Ruprechta, A. Hukea, K. Czerskia, S. Gottlieba, A. Husseina. April 6, 2013 http://festkoerper-kernphysik.de/Weissbach_EROI_preprint.pdf.
3. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Forty Global Oilfields Using a Detailed Engineering-Based Model of Oil Production. Adam R. Brandt, Yuchi Sun, Sharad Bharadwaj, David Livingston, Eugene Tan, Deborah Gordon. December 22, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144141.
4. EROI -- A Tool To Predict The Best Energy Mix. James Conca. Feb 11, 2015. https://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesconca/2015/02/11/eroi-a-tool-to-predict-the-best-energy-mix/.
5. When is EROI Not EROI? Carbajales-Dale. Biophys Econ Resour Qual 4, 16 (2019). декабрь 2019. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41247-019-0065-8.
6. Estimation of global final-stage energy-return-on-investment for fossil fuels with comparison to renewable energy sources. Brockway, P.E., Owen, A., Brand-Correa, L.I. et al. Nat Energy 4, 612–621 (2019). Июль 2019. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-019-0425-z.
7. Energy return on investment (EROI) of biomass conversion systems in China: Meta-analysis focused on system boundary unification. Wang, Changbo & Zhang, Lixiao & Chang, Yuan & Pang, Mingyue. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , Elsevier , т. 137 (С), 2021. DOI: 10.1016 / j.rser.2020.110652.
8. Energy Return on Investment. Март 2020. https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/energy-and-the-environment/energy-return-on-investment.aspx.
9. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of biofuels in Ecuador. Gonzalo Chiriboga, AndrésDe La Rosa, Camila Molina, StefanyVelarde, Ghem Carvajal C. Июнь 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04213.
10. Standard Point of Use and Extended Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI) from Comprehensive Material Requirements of Present Global Wind, Solar, and Hydro Power Technologies. Carlos de Castro, Iñigo Capellán-Pérez. Jun 26, 2020. Research article, Scientific publications. https://www.locomotion-h2020.eu/standard-point-of-use-and-extended-energy-return-on-energy-invested-eroi-from-comprehensive-material-requirements-of-present-global-wind-solar-and-hydro-power-technologies/.
11. Review of Energy Efficiency of the Gas Production Technologies From Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sediments. Koji Yamamoto, Sadao Nagakubo. 12 October 2021. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenrg.2021.741715.
12. Implementation of the Energy Return on Investment (EROI) into the EnergyScope TD model. Author : G..GUERRA MARTIN. University of Liege. August 2021 https://upcommons.upc.edu/bitstream/handle/2117/353221/implementation-of-the-energy-return-on-investment-eroi-into-the-energyscope-td-model.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.
13. An Explanation of Energy Return on Investment From an Entropy Perspective.
Yan Hu, Yingchao Chen, Songlin Tang, Lianyong Feng and Chen Huang. Front. Energy Res., 09 June 2021. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenrg.2021.633528.
14. Kong, Z., Dong, X., Jiang, Q. et al. Prospect of China’s synthetic natural gas from coal gasification technology under consideration of economic, environmental, and security factors. Clean Techn Environ Policy 23, 1821–1835 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-021-02069-0. март 2021.
15. Peak oil and the low-carbon energy transition: A net-energy perspective. Louis Delannoy, Pierre-Yves Longaretti, David Murphy, Emmanuel Prados. Август 2021, https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165112, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/354885905.
16. Global Long-Term EROI of Gas: A Net-Energy Perspective on the Energy Transition. Louis Delannoy, Pierre-Yves Longaretti, David. J. Murphy and Emmanuel Prados. Август 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165112.
17. Dynamic Energy Return on Energy Investment (EROI) and material requirements in scenarios of global transition to renewable energies. Iñigo Capellán-Péreza, Carlos de Castroa, Luis Javier. Miguel Gonzáleza. Обзоры энергетической стратегии. Ноябрь 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esr.2019.100399.
18. Electricity storage needs for the energy transition: An EROI based analysis illustrated by the case of Belgium. GauthierLimpens, HervéJeanmart. Июнь 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.03.180.

References

1. EROI of Global Energy Resources: Status, Trends and Social Implications. Jessica Gail Lambert, Charles A S Hall, Stephen Balogh. October 2013. DOI: 10.13140/2.1.2419.8724., Available at shttps://www.researchgate.net/publication/269277869_EROI_of_Global_Energy_Resources_Status_Trends_and_Social_Implications (In English).
2. Energy intensities, EROIs, and energy payback times of electricity generating power plants. D. Weißbach, G. Ruprechta, A. Hukea, K. Czerskia, S. Gottlieba, A. Husseina. April 6, 2013 Available at: http://festkoerper-kernphysik.de/Weissbach_EROI_preprint.pdf (In English).
3. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Forty Global Oilfields Using a Detailed Engineering-Based Model of Oil Production. Adam R. Brandt, Yuchi Sun, Sharad Bharadwaj, David Livingston, Eugene Tan, Deborah Gordon. December 22, 2015. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144141 (In English).
4. EROI -- A Tool To Predict The Best Energy Mix. James Conca. Feb 11, 2015. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesconca/2015/02/11/eroi-a-tool-to-predict-the-best-energy-mix/ (In Engish).
5. When is EROI Not EROI? Carbajales-Dale. Biophys Econ Resour Qual 4, 16 (2019). Dec. 2019. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41247-019-0065-8 (In English).
6. Estimation of global final-stage energy-return-on-investment for fossil fuels with comparison to renewable energy sources. Brockway, P.E., Owen, A., Brand-Correa, L.I. et al. Nat Energy 4, 612–621 (2019). Jule, 2019. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-019-0425-z (In English).
7. Energy return on investment (EROI) of biomass conversion systems in China: Meta-analysis focused on system boundary unification. Wang, Changbo & Zhang, Lixiao & Chang, Yuan & Pang, Mingyue. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , Elsevier, т. 137 (С), 2021. DOI: 10.1016 / j.rser.2020.110652 (In Engish).
8. Energy Return on Investment. Март 2020. Available at: https://world-nuclear.org/information-library/energy-and-the-environment/energy-return-on-investment.aspx (In English).
9. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of biofuels in Ecuador. Gonzalo Chiriboga, AndrésDe La Rosa, Camila Molina, StefanyVelarde, Ghem Carvajal C. June, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04213 (In English).
10. Standard Point of Use and Extended Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI) from Comprehensive Material Requirements of Present Global Wind, Solar, and Hydro Power Technologies. Carlos de Castro, Iñigo Capellán-Pérez. Jun 26, 2020. Research article, Scientific publications. Available at: https://www.locomotion-h2020.eu/standard-point-of-use-and-extended-energy-return-on-energy-invested-eroi-from-comprehensive-material-requirements-of-present-global-wind-solar-and-hydro-power-technologies/ (In English).
11. Review of Energy Efficiency of the Gas Production Technologies From Gas Hydrate-Bearing Sediments. Koji Yamamoto, Sadao Nagakubo. 12 October 2021. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3389/fenrg.2021.741715 (In English).
12. Implementation of the Energy Return on Investment (EROI) into the EnergyScope TD model. G..GUERRA MARTIN. University of Liege. August 2021 Available at: https://upcommons.upc.edu/bitstream/handle/2117/353221/implementation-of-the-energy-return-on-investment-eroi-into-the-energyscope-td-model.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (In English).
13. An Explanation of Energy Return on Investment From an Entropy Perspective. Yan Hu, Yingchao Chen, Songlin Tang, Lianyong Feng and Chen Huang. Front. Energy Res., 09 June 2021. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3389/fenrg.2021.633528 (In English).
14. Kong, Z., Dong, X., Jiang, Q. Prospect of China’s synthetic natural gas from coal gasification technology under consideration of economic, environmental, and security factors. Clean Techn Environ Policy 23, 1821–1835 (2021). Available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-021-02069-0. marsh 2021 (In English).
15. Peak oil and the low-carbon energy transition: A net-energy perspective. Louis Delannoy, Pierre-Yves Longaretti, David Murphy, Emmanuel Prados. Август 2021, Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165112, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/354885905 (In English).
16. Global Long-Term EROI of Gas: A Net-Energy Perspective on the Energy Transition. Louis Delannoy, Pierre-Yves Longaretti, David. J. Murphy and Emmanuel Prados. August, 2021. Available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/en14165112 (In English).
17. Dynamic Energy Return on Energy Investment (EROI) and material requirements in scenarios of global transition to renewable energies. Iñigo Capellán-Péreza, Carlos de Castroa, Luis Javier. Miguel Gonzáleza. Energy Strategy Reviews, November, 2019, Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esr.2019.100399 (In English).
18. Electricity storage needs for the energy transition: An EROI based analysis illustrated by the case of Belgium. GauthierLimpens, HervéJeanmart. June, 2018. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.03.180 (In English).

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